This work deals with energy conservation in the petroleum refineries. These refineries produce usable products from the crude and, in the process, consume large amounts of energy in the form of fuel, steam and electricity. They also provide a great opportunity to save energy since the present level of energy consumption is approximately 7 multiplied by 10**5 BTU vertical bbl compared to a theoretical value of 7 multiplied by 10**4 BTU vertical bbl arrived at by thermodynamic analysis. The authors look at some of the important developments made in this field, integrate them all together and calculate a conservative value for the expected energy savings. As an example, a refinery processing 100,000 bbld crude has been taken as the basis. 45 refs.