Background: There is scarce evidence that tuberculosis (TB) can cause diabetes in those not previously known to be diabetic. Whilst the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends screening for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) at the onset of TB treatment, nevertheless, it remains to be elucidated which patients with TB-associated hyperglycemia are at higher risk for developing DM and stand to benefit from a more regular follow-up. This review aims to firstly quantify the reduction of newly detected hyperglycemia burden in TB patients who are on treatment over time; secondly, determine the burden of TB-associated hyperglycemia after follow-up, and thirdly, synthesize literature on risk factors for unresolved TB-associated hyperglycemia in previously undiagnosed individuals. Methods: We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Global Health for articles on TB-associated hyperglycemia up to September 30th, 2019. Search terms included Tuberculosis and hyperglycemia/DM, and insulin resistance. We appraised studies, extracted data, and conducted a meta-analysis to assess the change of the burden of hyperglycemia in prospective studies. The review is registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42019118173). Results: Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis yielding a total of 677 (27,3\%) of patients with newly detected hyperglycemia at baseline. The mean quality score of eligible studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was 7.1 out of 9 (range 6-9). The pooled unresolved new cases of hyperglycemia at the end of follow up was 50\% (95\% CI: 36–64\%) and the total pooled burden of hyperglycemia at 3–6 months of follow up was 11\% (95\% CI: 7–16\%), with both estimates displaying a high heterogeneity, which remained significant after performing a sub-analysis by DM diagnostic method and 3 months of follow up. As only 2 studies explored risk factors for unresolved hyperglycemia, no meta-analysis was performed on risk factors. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis showed that although in half of the patients with newly observed hyperglycemia at baseline, it remained unresolved at a follow-up of 3 to 6 months, the total burden of hyperglycemia is slightly above 10\%, 3 months after initiating TB treatment. Studies are warranted to assess whether risk factors including HIV positivity, smoking, and extensive pulmonary TB disease put patients at higher risk for DM. © 2020, The Author(s).