Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollutants Using Earth Observation Sentinel 5P TROPOMI Data: Impact of Stubble Burning a Case Study
The problems of atmospheric pollutants are causing significant concern across the globe and in India. The aggravated level of atmospheric pollutants in the surrounding environment poses serious threats to normal living conditions by deteriorating air quality and causing adverse health impacts. Pollutant concentration increases during harvesting seasons of Kharif/Rabi due to stubble burning and is aggravated by other points or mobile sources. The present study is intended to monitor the spatio-temporal variation of the major atmospheric pollutants using Sentinel-5P TROPOMI data through cloud computing. Land Use/Land Cover (LULC-categorization or classification of human activities and natural coverage on the landscape) was utilised to extract the agricultural area in the study site. It involves the cloud computing of MOD64A1 (MODIS Burned monthly gridded data) and Sentinel-5P TROPOMI (S5P Tropomi) data for major atmospheric pollutants, such as CH4, NO2, SOX, CO, aerosol, and HCHO. The burned area output provided information regarding the stubble burning period, which has seen post-harvesting agricultural residue burning after Kharif crop harvesting (i.e., rice from April to June) and Rabi crop harvesting (i.e., wheat from September to November). The long duration of stubble burning is due to variation in farmers’ harvesting and burning stubble/biomass remains in the field for successive crops. This period was used as criteria for considering the cloud computing of the Sentinel-5P TROPOMI data for atmospheric pollutants concentration in the study site. The results showed a significant increase in CH4, SO2, SOX, CO, and aerosol concentration during the AMJ months (stubble burning of Rabi crops) and OND months (stubble burning of Kharif crops) of each year. The results are validated with the ground control station data for PM2.5/PM10. and patterns of precipitation and temperature-gridded datasets. The trajectory frequency for air mass movement using the HYSPLIT model showed that the highest frequency and concentration were observed during OND months, followed by the AMJ months of each year (2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021). This study supports the role and robustness of Earth observation Sentinel-5P TROPOMI to monitor and evaluate air quality and pollutants distribution.