The objective of this research is to identify species, provide spatial distribution of the species and estimate the biomass in the mangrove Forest, Bhitarkanika India. Mangrove ecosystems play an important role in regulating carbon cycling, thus having a significant impact on global environmental change. Extensive studies have been conducted for the estimation of mangrove species identification and biomass estimation. However, estimation at a regional level with species-wise biomass distribution has been insufficiently investigated in the past because either research focuses on the species distribution or biomass assessment. Study shows that good relationship has been achieved between stem volume (field measured data) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from satellite image and further these two indices are employed to estimate the biomass in the study site. Three models- linear, logarithmic and polynomial (second degree) are used to estimate biomass derived from EVI and NDVI. The hyperspectral data (spatial resolution ~ 30 m) is utilised to identify ten mangrove plant species. We have prepared the spatial distribution map of these species using spectral angle mapper. We have also generated mangrove species-wise biomass distribution map of the study site along with areal coverage of each species. The results indicate that the Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham. and Cynometra iripa Kostel has the highest biomass among all ten identified species, 643.12 Mg ha−1 and 652.14 Mg ha−1. Our study provided a positive relationship between NDVI, EVI, and the estimated biomass of Bhitarkanika Forest Reserve Odisha India. The study finds a similar results for both NDVI and EVI derived biomass, while linear regression has more significant results than the polynomial (second degree) and logarithmic regression derived biomass. The polynomial is found slightly better than the logarithmic when using the EVI as compared to NDVI derived biomass. The spatial distribution of species-wise biomass map obtained in this study using both, EVI and NDVI could be used to provide useful information for biodiversity assessment along with the sustainable solutions to different problems associated with the mangrove forest biodiversity. Thus, biomass assessment of larger regions can be achieved by utilization of remote sensing based indices as concluded in the present study. © 2019, Springer Nature B.V.