The anisotropy of the electronic interactions between fullerenes in crystalline solids was examined using a confocal fluorescence microscope by probing the polarization of the fluorescence emission arising from fullerene excimer-like emitting states. Crystals of C60 obtained by vacuum-sublimation or from chloroform solution exhibited no or little polarization (p = 0 or 0.11, respectively), as expected from the high symmetry of the C60 fcc lattice or the low degree of anisotropy induced by included solvent molecules. The use of hydrogen-bonding to supramolecularly control interfullerene electronic interactions was explored using a fullerene derivative (1) combining a solubilizing 3,4-di-tert-butylbenzene group and a barbituric acid hydrogen-bonding (H-B) moiety. The crystal structure of 1 establishes the existence of fullerene H-B tapes along which interfullerene electronic interactions are expected to be large. In agreement with this, we observe very strong polarization of the fullerene excimer-like emission (p = 0.78), indicative of a high degree of anisotropy in the fullerene interactions. The charge-carrier mobility of 1 as determined from OFET devices was found to be lower than that of C60 (1.2 × 10-4 vs 1.2 × 10-2 cm2/s V), which is rationalized on the basis of the reduced dimensionality of 1 as a wire-like semiconductor and variations in the morphology of the device active layer revealed by AFM measurments. © 2010 American Chemical Society.