Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a common group of neurodevelopmental disorders which causes significant alterations in social and communication skills along with repetitive behavior and limited interests. The physiological understanding of ASD is ambiguous. Several reports suggested that environmental, genetic and epigenetic changes, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic alterations orchestrate the pathological outcomes of ASD. A recent report from Saudi Arabia found a mutation in X-chromosomal housekeeping glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene in two male ASD patients. Although, the involvement of G6PD-deficiency in the pathogenesis of ASD is poorly understood. Several reports suggested that G6PD deficiency impedes cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may result in neuronal damage and neuroinflammation. A deficiency of G6PD in newborn children may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ASD. In this review, we will discuss the implications of G6PD deficiency in pathogenesis, male biasness and theranostics in ASD patients. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.