Rattans are climbing palms belonging to the family Arecaceae (Palmae). They are important source of rattan cane which is a major non-wood forest product, especially in Asia. In recent years, uncontrolled harvesting and deforestation have led to resource exhaustion of the desired species in many rattan-producing countries in Asia. As a result of rapid growth of the industry from the 1970s, there was over-exploitation and wasteful utilization of the resource. The increasing global demand for rattan, necessitated sustainable management of the resources which resulted in a series of scientific studies in various institutions. In India, the main fields of research included taxonomic diversity and distribution, nursery, plantation technology, structure, properties and processing and socioeconomics. This paper reviews the work done on Indian rattans and examines the present status of the resources and industry along with the major issues in resource availability, conservation, processing and marketing. Some important and immediate actions to be taken are also suggested.