We have characterized the phase behavior of mixtures of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the organic salt 3-sodium-2-hydroxy naphthoate (SHN) over a wide range of surfactant concentrations using polarizing optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A variety of liquid crystalline phases, such as hexagonal, lamellar with and without curvature defects, and nematic, are observed in these mixtures. At high temperatures the curvature defects in the lamellar phase are annealed gradually on decreasing the water content. However, at lower temperatures these two lamellar structures are separated by an intermediate phase, where the bilayer defects appear to order into a lattice. The ternary phase diagram shows a high degree of symmetry about the line corresponding to equimolar CTAB/SHN composition, as in the case of mixtures of cationic and anionic surfactants. © 2005 American Chemical Society.