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Pathogenic Pore Forming Proteins of Plasmodium Triggers the Necrosis of Endothelial Cells Attributed to Malaria Severity
Shivappagowdar A., Garg S., Srivastava A., Hada R.S., Kalia I., Singh A.P., Garg L.C., , Singh S.
Published in NLM (Medline)
PMID: 33467515
Volume: 13
Issue: 1
Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum poses a major global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. P. falciparum harbors a family of pore-forming proteins (PFPs), known as perforin like proteins (PLPs), which are structurally equivalent to prokaryotic PFPs. These PLPs are secreted from the parasites and, they contribute to disease pathogenesis by interacting with host cells. The severe malaria pathogenesis is associated with the dysfunction of various barrier cells, including endothelial cells (EC). Several factors, including PLPs secreted by parasites, contribute to the host cell dysfunction. Herein, we have tested the hypothesis that PLPs mediate dysfunction of barrier cells and might have a role in disease pathogenesis. We analyzed various dysfunctions in barrier cells following rPLP2 exposure and demonstrate that it causes an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels. Additionally, rPLP2 exposed barrier cells displayed features of cell death, including Annexin/PI positivity, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, and ROS generation. We have further performed the time-lapse video microscopy of barrier cells and found that the treatment of rPLP2 triggers their membrane blebbing. The cytoplasmic localization of HMGB1, a marker of necrosis, further confirmed the necrotic type of cell death. This study highlights the role of parasite factor PLP in endothelial dysfunction and provides a rationale for the design of adjunct therapies against severe malaria.
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Published in NLM (Medline)
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