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Management of disease in eucalypt plantations
P Gadgil D, T Wardlaw J, F Ferreira A, , M Dick A, M Wingfield J, P Crous W, P Keane J, G Kile A, F Podger DShow More
Published in
Pages: 519 - 529
The climate of a region and the occurrence of pests and pathogens have a major influence on the selection of the species of eucalypts that can be successfully grown as exotics and on the management of eucalypt plantations. Frost and drought are the two most important climatic factors that determine whether certain species can be grown in a region. The major diseases that have restricted the use of commercially desirable species are Mycosphaerella leaf blotch in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, Cryphonectria stem canker in Brazil and South Africa, eucalypt rust (Puccinia psidii) in Brazil and Phytophthora root rot in parts of Australia and in South Africa. Successful management of disease in plantations can be achieved by a combination of plant quarantine measures, silvicultural practices and the use of disease resistant planting stock. Many eucalypt pests and pathogens occur in some regions of the world but not others; the threat to yet uninfested areas can be reduced, although never eliminated, by quarantine practices aimed at reducing the opportunity for the spread of such organisms between regions. Silvicultural practices can be modified to create conditions unfavourable for disease development. The incidence of stem decay, for example, can be considerably reduced by avoiding damage during thinning. Losses from bacterial wilt can be prevented by avoiding injury to the roots of containerized seedlings. The use of resistant stock has minimized the effect of Cryphonectria canker in Brazil and South Africa. Very promising material resistant to Cylindrocladiumleaf blight and pink disease caused by Erythricium salmonicolor is becoming available in India and the management of Mycosphaerella leaf blotch in South Africa is achieved primarily through the planting of disease resistant species and provenances. A prudent manager should seek to combine the advantages of all available control methods. The selection of species adapted to the site, combined with the use of silvicultural regimes that maintain stand hygiene and the use of a mix of productive clones or provenances with enduring field resistance to the major diseases will provide the most successful disease management strategy in eucalypt plantations.
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