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Highlighting the Role of Earth Observation Sentinel5P TROPOMI in monitoring volcanic eruptions: A Report on Hunga Tonga, a Submarine Volcano

Published in Taylor and Francis Ltd
Volume: 13
Issue: 9
Pages: 912 - 923

The present study utilized earth observation Sentinel5P TROPOMI
(TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) data for monitoring submarine
volcanic activities. The world has seen a sequence of abrupt volcanic
eruptions within one-month duration i.e., on 20th December 2021, 13th
January 2022 and 15th January 2022. This caused the emissions of
natural gaseous pollutants such as Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Hydrogen
Sulphide (H2S) and ash particles. Atmospheric SO2, AAI (Absorbing
Aerosol Index) and Cloud fraction data are retrieved from the
TROPOMI onboard the Copernicus Sentinel5P European Space
Agency satellite. Results confirmed the increased concentration of
SO2 column density after 20th December, and it was observed to be
0.002 mol/m2, the highest concentration during the period of study.
Generally, SO2 concentration stays within 0.001 mol/m2 or less.
Concentration was seen increasing after the first eruption and reached
maximum after 15th January 2022 eruption to a level up to 0.002 mol/
m2. Similar outcomes were observed for AAI for the chosen site. AAI
values increased to 25,000 fold (AAI values of 1.25) during the first
eruption and increased to 29,000 fold on 15th January 2022 after
eruptions (AAI values of 1.45) as compared AAI values of 0.005 or
negative AAI values before eruptions. A cloud fraction of value 1 is
observed during this time, along with the top most cloud height at
14,233.16 m (14.23 kms) above the crater of the volcano (maximum
estimation limit by S5P). These values are higher as compared to
isolated islands, as there are no other sources of emissions at surrounding
environment. The outcomes support the role of Earth Observation
datasets for disaster monitoring and management plans for
mitigation. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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Published in Taylor and Francis Ltd
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