Human COVID-19 has affected more than 491 million people worldwide. It has caused over 6.1 million deaths and has especially perpetrated a high number of casualties among the elderly and those with comorbid illnesses. COVID-19 triggers a pro-oxidant response, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a common innate defense mechanism. However, ROS are regulated by a key enzyme called G6PD via the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which controls the generation and removal of ROS in a tissue-specific manner. Therefore, a deficiency of G6PD can lead to the dysregulation of ROS, which causes a severe inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients. This report highlights the G6PD dichotomy in the regulation of ROS and inflammatory responses, as well as its deficiency in severity among COVID-19 patients. © 2022 Future Medicine Ltd.