Experimental charge density distributions in two known conformational polymorphs (orange and yellow) of coumarin 314 dye are analyzed based on multipole modeling of X-ray diffraction data collected at 100 K. The experimental results are compared with the charge densities derived from multipole modeling of theoretical structure factors obtained from periodic quantum calculation with density functional theory (DFT) method and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The presence of disorder at the carbonyl oxygen atom of ethoxycarbonyl group in the yellow form, which was not identified earlier, is addressed here. The investigation of intermolecular interactions, based on Hirshfeld surface analysis and topological properties via quantum theory of atoms in molecule and total electrostatic interaction energies, revealed significant differences between the polymorphs. The differences of electrostatic nature in these two polymorphic forms were unveiled via construction of three-dimensional deformation electrostatic potential maps plotted over the molecular surfaces. The lattice energies evaluated from ab initio calculations on the two polymorphic forms indicate that the yellow form is likely to be the most favorable thermodynamically. The dipole moments derived from experimental and theoretical charge densities and also from Lorentz tensor approach are compared with the single-molecule dipole moments. In each case, the differences of dipole moments between the polymorphs are identified. © 2010 American Chemical Society.