We report on effects of Fe implantation dopinginduced changes in structural, optical, morphological, and vibrational properties of cadmium sulfide thin films. Films were implanted with 90 keV Fe+ ions at room temperature for a wide range of fluences from 0.1 × 1016 to 3.6 × 1016 ions cm-2 (corresponding to 0.38-12.03 at.% of Fe). Glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the implanted Fe atoms tend to supersaturate by occupying the substitutional cationic sites rather than forming metallic clusters or secondary phase precipitates. In addition, Fe doping does not lead to any structural phase transformation although it induces structural disorder and lattice contraction. Optical absorption studies show a reduction in the optical band gap from 2.39 to 2.17 eV with increasing Fe concentration. This is attributed to disorder-induced band tailing in semiconductors and ion-beam-induced grain growth. The strain associated with a lattice contraction is deduced from micro-Raman scattering measurements and is found that size and shape fluctuations of grains, at higher fluences, give rise to inhomogeneity in strain. © Springer-Verlag 2010.