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DNA interaction, in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation of –N, S donor Re(I) metal complexes
Reena Varma R., Juhee Pandya G., , Chandramani Pathak, Mohan Patel N.
Published in
Volume: 25
Issue: 2
Pages: 687 - 699
Abstract: N, S donor ligands (L1–L5){L1–L5 = 1,5-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (L1), 1-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (L2), 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-1-(p-tolyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (L3), 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (L4), 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (L5)} were synthesized by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and characterized by spectrometric methods. The complexes (I–V) were synthesized by ligand combination followed by metal chelation. The binding of the rhenium complexes to Herrin sperm DNA was monitored by UV spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The groove binding was suggested as the most possible mode and the Kb values of the complexes were calculated. The mode of interaction was furthermore confirmed by molecular docking. Brine shrimp lethality and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytotoxicity against the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells showed the toxic nature of the synthesized compounds. All compounds were found active against S. cerevisiae, which was confirmed by increased ROS production and DNA damage as compared to untreated yeast cell culture. The oxidative harm to cell structures was affirmed by lipid peroxidation. An antimicrobial study was carried out by estimating minimum inhibitory concentration against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. All complexes show good antiproliferative activity against the HCT 116 cell line. All synthesized complexes are biologically more active than the corresponding ligands. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
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