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Benzoxazine derivatives of phytophenols show anti-plasmodial activity via sodium homeostasis disruption
Sharma V., Amarnath N., Shukla S., Ayana R., Kumar N., Yadav N., Kannan D., , , Show More
Published in Elsevier Ltd
PMID: 29615339
Volume: 28
Issue: 9
Pages: 1629 - 1637
Development of new class of anti-malarial drugs is an essential requirement for the elimination of malaria. Bioactive components present in medicinal plants and their chemically modified derivatives could be a way forward towards the discovery of effective anti-malarial drugs. Herein, we describe a new class of compounds, 1,3-benzoxazine derivatives of pharmacologically active phytophenols eugenol (compound 3) and isoeugenol (compound 4) synthesised on the principles of green chemistry, as anti-malarials. Compound 4, showed highest anti-malarial activity with no cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells. Compound 4 induced alterations in the intracellular Na+ levels and mitochondrial depolarisation in intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum leading to cell death. Knowing P-type cation ATPase PfATP4 is a regulator for sodium homeostasis, binding of compound 3, compound 4 and eugenol to PfATP4 was analysed by molecular docking studies. Compounds showed binding to the catalytic pocket of PfATP4, however compound 4 showed stronger binding due to the presence of propylene functionality, which corroborates its higher anti-malarial activity. Furthermore, anti-malarial half maximal effective concentration of compound 4 was reduced to 490 nM from 17.54 µM with nanomaterial graphene oxide. Altogether, this study presents anti-plasmodial potential of benzoxazine derivatives of phytophenols and establishes disruption of parasite sodium homeostasis as their mechanism of action. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
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Published in Elsevier Ltd
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