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AutoFCL: automatically tuning fully connected layers for handling small dataset
S.H.S. Basha, S.K. Vinakota, S.R. Dubey, V. Pulabaigari,
Published in Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have evolved as popular machine learning models for image classification during the past few years, due to their ability to learn the problem-specific features directly from the input images. The success of deep learning models solicits architecture engineering rather than hand-engineering the features. However, designing state-of-the-art CNN for a given task remains a non-trivial and challenging task, especially when training data size is less. To address this phenomena, transfer learning has been used as a popularly adopted technique. While transferring the learned knowledge from one task to another, fine-tuning with the target-dependent fully connected (FC) layers generally produces better results over the target task. In this paper, the proposed AutoFCL model attempts to learn the structure of FC layers of a CNN automatically using Bayesian Optimization. To evaluate the performance of the proposed AutoFCL, we utilize five pre-trained CNN models such as VGG-16, ResNet, DenseNet, MobileNet, and NASNetMobile. The experiments are conducted on three benchmark datasets, namely CalTech-101, Oxford-102 Flowers, and UC Merced Land Use datasets. Fine-tuning the newly learned (target-dependent) FC layers leads to state-of-the-art performance, according to the experiments carried out in this research. The proposed AutoFCL method outperforms the existing methods over CalTech-101 and Oxford-102 Flowers datasets by achieving the accuracy of 94.38 % and 98.89 % , respectively. However, our method achieves comparable performance on the UC Merced Land Use dataset with 96.83 % accuracy. The source code of this research is available at https://github.com/shabbeersh/AutoFCL. © 2021, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.
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Published in Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
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