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Analysis of Circulation Reversal and Particle Transport in Evaporating Drops
, Medhi B.J., Majumder S.K., Singh A.
Published in Springer Science and Business Media B.V.
Volume: 33
Issue: 1
We report experimental evidence of circulation reversal in evaporating drops. The internal flow patterns and particle distribution inside the evaporating water droplet with suspended polystyrene particles was studied using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Droplet placed on externally heated substrate showed two symmetric and counter rotating Marangoni convection cells at the beginning of evaporation process. Towards the final stages of evaporation, the two counter rotating Marangoni convection cells reversed the direction of circulation. Interestingly, it was observed that between these two stages four symmetric and counter rotating convection cells appeared inside the evaporating droplet. Our results are in support of recent theoretical investigations on circulation reversal in evaporating drops. The flow patterns were driven by the surface tension gradient caused by the surface temperature distribution along the droplet-air interface. The surface temperature distribution is not only dependent on the non-uniform evaporation flux but also on the conduction path from the substrate to the droplet surface. Towards the end of evaporation, the fluid flow becomes radially outward from the center to the pinned edge of the droplet. We have also investigated the evaporating droplets placed on a curved substrate. Unlike the case of flat substrate, the evaporation from curved surface resulted monotonic temperature profile. The particle distribution and resulting deposition patterns was strongly influenced by the internal fluid flow pattern and was observed to be different from that of a flat substrate. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature.
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Published in Springer Science and Business Media B.V.
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