Polymorphism in drugs and bioactive molecules is not uncommon, and it has remained as one of the critical issues in drug development processes. While improving physicochemical properties of bioactive molecules has been a prime focus of the pharmaceutical chemists, not much efforts have been put toward the improvement of their potency via polymorphic modifications. Here, we consider five cases of 5-arylidene-2-aminothiazolidinones derivatives, the known anticancer agents, and discover eights polymorphs in three out of the five cases. We perform systematic crystallization experiments and detailed crystal structure analysis of the eight polymorphs and two compounds, estimate both their energetic and thermal stabilities, and compare their solid state properties. We also compare in-solution properties, e.g., equilibrium solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and phase stability, of three polymorphs of one of the cases. Further, we study the extent of inhibition imposed by those eight polymorphs and seven bulk and crystal forms of the compounds on the proliferation of MCF7 breast cancer cells and also the extent of their binding to the isozyme γ-enolase. Furthermore, we perform MD simulations on the eight polymorphs and one compound to estimate and compare their binding affinity with γ-enolase. Our experimental and MD simulation analyses in general emphasize the importance of polymorphism in improving the biological potency of individual molecules. © 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.