Legumes represent an important family of flowering plants in terms of providing human nutrition and capacity to fix atmospheric N for agricultural sustainability. The recent availability of genome sequence of several legume plants has helped boosting genomics research. Study of the transcriptome at a global level can provide insights into the gene space, gene function, transcriptional programs, and molecular basis of various cellular processes in legumes, even in the absence of genome sequence. Transcriptome analysis has been realized as an essential step for basic and applied research in any organism. Considering the importance of transcriptome analyses, a few studies have been performed in legumes, such as soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], Medicago truncatula Gaertn., Lotus corniculatus L. var. japonicus Regel [syn. Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen], and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), to uncover the overall and specific transcriptional activity of genes across various tissues and/or organs and developmental stages. Several candidate genes putatively involved in important agronomic traits, such as nodule, flower, and seed development, have been identified. The availability of these transcriptome data and future investigations will enable a variety of functional genomic studies to characterize these genes and define their function in legumes. © Crop Science Society of America.