Understanding the factors that control the variability of oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall (δ18Op) is of vital importance for the interpretation of δ18Op derived from climate proxies (e.g., speleothem and tree ring cellulose) of this region. Here we demonstrate the importance of moisture transport pathways on spatiotemporal variations of ISM δ18Op using a new set of daily observations from central and northern India and previously reported data aided by simulations from an isotope-enabled General Circulation Model. 18O-depleted rain events are characterized by a higher number of air parcel back trajectories through the Bay of Bengal branch of moisture transport, while those through the Arabian Sea branch are associated with 18O enriched rain events. This effect is observed on intraseasonal to interannual timescales in the long-term observations at New Delhi as well. Thus, the shift in moisture transport regimes must be considered when interpreting δ 18Op from climate proxies of the ISM region. ©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.