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Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfur and Sulfur-Selenium Nanoparticles Loaded on Reduced Graphene Oxide and Their Antibacterial Activity against Gram-Positive Pathogens
R. Niranjan, S. Zafar,
Published in MDPI
Volume: 12
Issue: 2

Resistance to antimicrobial agents in Gram-positive bacteria has become a major concern in the last decade. Recently, nanoparticles (NP) have emerged as a potential solution to antibiotic resistance. We synthesized three reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles, namely rGO, rGO-S, and rGO-S/Se, and characterized them using X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed spherical shape nanometer size S and S/Se NPs on the rGO surface. Antibacterial properties of all three nanomaterials were probed against Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, using turbidometeric and CFU assays. Among the synthesized nanomaterials, rGO-S/Se exhibited relatively strong an-tibacterial activity against both Gram-positive microorganism tested in a concentration dependent manner (growth inhibition >90% at 200 µg/mL). Atomic force microscopy of rGO-S/Se treated cells displayed morphological aberrations. Our studies also revealed that rGO composite NPs are able to deposit on the bacterial cell surface, resulting in membrane perturbation and oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest a possible three-pronged approach of bacterial cytotoxicity by these graphene-based materials. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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