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Sustainable Bis-benzoxazines from Cardanol and PET-Derived Terephthalamides
Sharma P., , Kumar D., Roy P.K.
Published in American Chemical Society
Volume: 4
Issue: 3
Pages: 1085 - 1093
This paper deals with the preparation of sustainable benzoxazines that exhibit enormous potential to compete with the existing petro-based advance performance thermosets. The phenolic component used for the synthesis of benzoxazine is derived from naturally occurring cardanol, which is obtained from cashew nut tree, Anacardium occidentale. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was chosen as a sustainable feedstock for the amine fraction used to prepare the benzoxazine monomer containing amide linkages. Microwave-assisted aminolysis of PET was performed to obtain bis(amino-ethyl) terephthalamide (BAET) and α,ω-aminoligo(ethylene terephthalamide) (AOET), which were employed as the difunctional amine for the preparation of bis-benzoxazines. In comparison to the traditional method, microwave-assisted aminolysis of PET was found to be significantly faster, and the reaction completion time could be brought down appreciably. Mannich-like condensation of cardanol with PET-derived terephthalamides and paraformaldehyde led to the formation of bis-benzoxazines with amide linkages, the structure of which was confirmed through FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The curing behavior of the bis-benzoxazines was studied using nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry. The presence of amide linkages in addition to the polar group formed during the ring opening of benzoxazines led to the improvement in adhesive strength, which was quantified in terms of lap shear strength. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
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Published in American Chemical Society
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