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Stable Dispersions of Covalently Tethered Polymer Improved Graphene Oxide Nanoconjugates as an Effective Vector for siRNA Delivery
Yadav N., Kumar N., Prasad P., Shirbhate S., ,
Published in American Chemical Society
PMID: 29634909
Volume: 10
Issue: 17
Pages: 14577 - 14593
Conjugates of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) with modified graphene oxide (GO) are attractive nonviral vectors for gene-based cancer therapeutics. GO protects siRNA from enzymatic cleavage and showed reasonable transfection efficiency along with simultaneous benefits of low cost and large scale production. PAMAM is highly effective in siRNA delivery but suffers from high toxicity with poor in vivo efficacy. Co-reaction of GO and PAMAM led to aggregation and more importantly, have detrimental effect on stability of dispersion at physiological pH preventing their exploration at clinical level. In the current work, we have designed, synthesized, characterized and explored a new type of hybrid vector (GPD), using GO synthesized via improved method which was covalently tethered with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and PAMAM. The existence of covalent linkage, relative structural changes and properties of GPD is well supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible (UV-vis), Raman, X-ray photoelectron (XPS), elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of GPD showed longitudinally aligned columnar self-assembled ∼10 nm thick polymeric nanoarchitectures onto the GO surface accounting to an average size reduction to ∼20 nm. GPD revealed an outstanding stability in both phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and serum containing cell medium. The binding efficiency of EPAC1 siRNA to GPD was supported by gel retardation assay, DLS, zeta potential and photoluminescence (PL) studies. A lower cytotoxicity with enhanced cellular uptake and homogeneous intracellular distribution of GPD/siRNA complex is confirmed by imaging studies. GPD exhibited a higher transfection efficiency with remarkable inhibition of cell migration and lower invasion than PAMAM and Lipofectamine 2000 suggesting its role in prevention of breast cancer progression and metastasis. A significant reduction in the expression of the specific protein against which siRNA was delivered is revealed by Western blot assay. Furthermore, a pH-triggered release of siRNA from the GPD/siRNA complex was studied to provide a mechanistic insight toward unloading of siRNA from the vector. Current strategy is a way forward for designing effective therapeutic vectors for gene-based antitumor therapy. © 2018 American Chemical Society.
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Published in American Chemical Society
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