Slurry erosion is a degrading phenomenon usually observed in machineries dealing with particle-laden fluid such as hydro power plants, ship propellers, pump impellers, valves, and connecting pipes. The low erosion resistance of commonly employed structural materials prompts the use of different surface modification techniques. Among several types of surface modification techniques, thermal spraying has achieved a significant recognition worldwide due to its versatile nature. In this chapter, slurry erosion behavior of thermal sprayed coatings has been discussed with special emphasis on the contribution of different coating related parameter. It has been observed that microstructure play an important role in determining the slurry erosion performance of thermal spray coatings. Different microstructural features such as splat boundaries, pores, un-melted particles, and cracks are detrimental for the thermal spray coatings exposed to erosive environment. A parameter useful for identification of primary erosion mechanism for thermal sprayed coatings is also discussed. © 2015, IGI Global. All rights reserved.