Header menu link for other important links
Self-Polymerization Promoting Monomers: In Situ Transformation of Disulfide-Linked Benzoxazines into the Thiazolidine Structure
Monisha M., Sahu S.,
Published in American Chemical Society
PMID: 34582169
Volume: 22
Issue: 10
Pages: 4408 - 4421
Polybenzoxazines obtained especially from green synthons are facing challenges of the requirement of high ring-opening polymerization (ROP) temperature of the monomer, thus affecting their exploration at the industrial front. This demands effective structural changes in the monomer itself, to mediate catalyst-free polymerization at a low energy via one-step synthesis protocol. In this regard, monomers based on disulfide-linked bisbenzoxazine were successfully synthesized using cystamine (biobased) and cardanol (agro-waste)/phenol. Reduction of the disulfide bridge in the monomer using dithiothreitol under mild conditions in situ transformed the oxazine ring in the monomer, via neighboring group participation of the -SH group in a transient intermediate monomer, into a thiazolidine structure, which is otherwise difficult to synthesize. Structural transformation of ring-opening followed by the ring-closing intramolecular reaction led to an interconversion of O-CH2-N containing a six-membered oxazine ring to S-CH2-N containing a five-membered thiazolidine ring and a phenolic-OH. The structure of the monomer with the oxazine ring and its congener with the thiazolidine ring was characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray analysis. Kinetics of structural transformation at a molecular level is studied in detail, and it was found that the reaction proceeded via a transient 2-aminoethanethiol-linked benzoxazine intermediate, as supported by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory studies. The thiazolidine-ring-containing monomer promotes ROP at a substantially low temperature than the reported mono-/bisoxazine monomers due to the dual mode of facilitation of the ROP reaction, both by phenolic-OH and by ring strain. Surprisingly, both the monomer structures led to the formation of a similar polymer structure, as supported by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared study. The current work highlights the benefits of inherent functionalities in naturally sourced feedstocks as biosynthons for the new latest generation of benzoxazine monomers. © 2021 American Chemical Society.
About the journal
Published in American Chemical Society
Open Access
Impact factor