The present study aims at conducting a comprehensive seismic risk assessment for the North Eastern Region of India at regional and sub-regional levels by integrating probabilistic seismic hazard and social vulnerability assessments. Bedrock-level peak ground acceleration varied from 0.14 to 0.69g for the return period of 475 years. Using PCA, the social vulnerability index (SVI) was generated considering district-level socioeconomic indicators. Built environment quality, illiteracy, access to amenities, dependent population, and employment opportunities contributed to high SVI. Most vulnerable districts were concentrated in the Brahmaputra floodplains, Tripura fold belt, and Imphal valley. At the regional level, significant parts of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura lie in moderate to very high-risk zones. At the sub-regional level, Nagaland accounts for the highest proportion of areas in high to very high-risk zones. The findings will aid site-specific resilient infrastructure design, disaster risk reduction, and effective resource allocation for the risk-prone areas. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.