The Royal Society of Chemistry, with the agreement of the authors, hereby wholly retracts this RSC Advances review article due to a significant amount of unattributed overlap of content in the Introduction, Section 6 and Conclusions with a npj 2D Materials and Applications article by Thomas Mueller et al., which was not cited in this article.1 In addition, there are portions of text overlap with papers cited in the main article, in particular ref. 64 in Section 2, ref. 92 in Section 3, ref. 104 in Section 4 and ref. 138 in Section 5. The authors also regret their oversight in omitting to attribute Fig. 5 to its original source (ref. 92 in the original article). Signed: Bhaskar Kaviraj and Dhirendra Sahoo Date: 22nd March 2021 Retraction endorsed by Laura Fisher, Executive Editor, RSC Advances © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2021.