Chickpea is a very important crop legume plant, which provides a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets and has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Despite its economic importance, the functional genomic resources for chickpea are very limited. Recently, we reported the complete transcriptome of chickpea using next generation sequencing technologies. We analyzed the tissue-specific expression of chickpea transcripts based on RNA-seq data. In addition, we identified two sets of lineage-specific genes, including a total of 3,632 chickpea-specific and 741 legume-specific transcripts based on sequence comparison with other species within plant kingdom. The study of lineage-specific genes provides insights into the species-/lineage-specific functions and evolutionary processes. In this study, we further analyzed the expression profiles of legume- and chickpea-specific transcripts in various tissue samples. Several legume- and chickpea-specific transcripts showed preferential and/or specific expression in the tissue samples analyzed. Our analysis provides evidence for the role of legume- and chickpea-specific transcripts in various tissues and opens an important area of future research to elucidate the exact role of these genes. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.