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Pre-clinical study of iron oxide nanoparticles fortified artesunate for efficient targeting of malarial parasite
Kannan D., Yadav N., Ahmad S., Namdev P., Bhattacharjee S., , Singh S.
Published in Elsevier B.V.
PMID: 31255656
Volume: 45
Pages: 261 - 277
Background: Artesunate the most potent antimalarial is widely used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant malaria. The antimalarial cytotoxicity of artesunate has been mainly attributed to its selective, irreversible and iron- radical-mediated damage of parasite biomolecules. In the present research, iron oxide nanoparticle fortified artesunate was tested in P. falciparum and in an experimental malaria mouse model for enhancement in the selectivity and toxicity of artesunate towards parasite. Artesunate was fortified with nontoxic biocompatible surface modified iron oxide nanoparticle which is specially designed and synthesized for the sustained pH-dependent release of Fe2+ within the parasitic food vacuole for enhanced ROS spurt. Methods: Antimalarial efficacy of Iron oxide nanoparticle fortified artesunate was evaluated in wild type and artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (R539T) grown in O + ve human blood and in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infected swiss albino mice. Internalization of nanoparticles, the pH-dependent release of Fe2+, production of reactive oxygen species and parasite biomolecule damage by iron oxide nanoparticle fortified artesunate was studied using various biochemical, biophysical, ultra-structural and fluorescence microscopy. For determining the efficacy of ATA-IONP+ART on resistant parasite ring survival assay was performed. Results: The nanoparticle fortified artesunate was highly efficient in the 1/8th concentration of artesunate IC50 and led to retarded growth of P. falciparum with significant damage to macromolecules mediated via enhanced ROS production. Similarly, preclinical In vivo studies also signified a radical reduction in parasitemia with ~8–10-fold reduced dosage of artesunate when fortified with iron oxide nanoparticles. Importantly, the ATA-IONP combination was efficacious against artemisinin-resistant parasites. Interpretation: Surface coated iron-oxide nanoparticle fortified artesunate can be developed into a potent therapeutic agent towards multidrug-resistant and artemisinin-resistant malaria in humans. Fund: This study is supported by the Centre for Study of Complex Malaria in India funded by the National Institute of Health, USA. © 2019
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Published in Elsevier B.V.
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