In this introductory chapter, the editors lay out the context of China’s current political, economic and foreign policy developments with reference to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC). It argues that promoting an idea of ŉational rejuvenation’ is part of a continuing effort by the CPC to bolster its legitimacy at home. To this end, the Party uses China’s strengths and capacities abroad in the belief that an increased international profile and respect for the country also raises its stock at home. However, the goal of ŉational rejuvenation’ has also been used to recentralize power at home and comes amidst strong economic headwinds both at home and abroad. The rest of the chapter summarizes the key findings in the book and notes that as China’s influence rises globally and its presence becomes more entrenched across domains of politics, economic activity, traditional and non-traditional security and science and technology, how it proceeds to use this influence vis-à-vis other countries will be a function of the confidence of the CPC in its own strengths and capacities to rule China. © The Author(s) 2020.