Microsatellite markers were used for fingerprinting of hybrids, assessing variation within parental lines and testing the genetic purity of hybrid seed lot in rice. Ten sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS) markers were employed for fingerprinting 11 rice hybrids and their parental lines. Nine STMS markers were found polymorphic across the hybrids and produced unique fingerprint for the 11 hybrids. A set of four markers (RM 206, RM 216, RM 258 and RM 263) differentiated all the hybrids from each other, which can be used as referral markers for unambiguous identification and protection of these hybrids. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient using UP-GMA grouped the hybrids into three clusters. Within the cluster all the hybrids shared a common cytoplasmic male sterile line as female parent. The genetic similarity between the hybrids ranged from 0.33 to 0.92 with an average similarity index of 0.63. The analysis of plant-to-plant variation within the parental lines of the hybrid Pusa RH 10, using informative markers indicated residual heterozygosity at two marker loci. This highlights the importance of STMS markers in maintaining the genetic purity of the parental lines. The unique value of the restorer gene linked marker for testing the genetic purity of hybrid seeds is demonstrated for the first time.