A library of arylidenefuropyridinediones was discovered as potent inhibitors of Leishmania donovani Topoisomerase 1 (LdTop1) where the active molecules displayed considerable inhibition with single digit micromolar EC 50 values. This molecular library was designed via intuitive scaffold hopping and bioisosteric modification of known topoisomerase 1 inhibitors such as camptothecin, edotecarin and etc. The design was rationalized by molecular docking analysis of the compound prototype with human topoisomerase 1 (HTop1) and Leishmania donovani topoisomerase 1(LdTop1). The most active compound 4 displayed no cytotoxicity against normal mammalian COS7 cell line (∼100 fold less inhibition at the EC 50). Similar to camptothecin, 4 interacted with free LdTop1 as observed in the preincubation DNA relaxation inhibition experiment. It also displayed anti-protozoal activity against Leishmania donovani promastigote. Crystal structure investigation of 4 and its molecular modelling with LdTop1 revealed putative binding sites in the enzyme that could be harnessed to generate molecules with better potency.