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Identification and structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies of carvacrol derivatives as potential anti-malarial against Plasmodium falciparum falcipain-2 protease
Uddin A., Singh V., Irfan I., Mohammad T., Singh Hada R., Imtaiyaz Hassan M., Abid M., Singh S.
Published in Academic Press Inc.
PMID: 32763521
Volume: 103
In an effort to develop a potent anti-malarial agent against Plasmodium falciparum, a structure-guided virtual screening using an in-house library comprising 652 compounds was performed. By docking studies, we identified two compounds (JMI-105 and JMI-346) which formed significant non-covalent interactions and fit well in the binding pocket of PfFP-2. We affirmed this observation by MD simulation studies. As evident by the biochemical analysis, such as enzyme inhibition assay, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), live-cell imaging and hemozoin inhibition, JMI-105 and JMI-346 at 25 µM concentration showed an inhibitory effect on purified PfFP-2. JMI-105 and JMI-346 inhibited the growth of CQS (3D7; IC50 = 8.8 and 13 µM) and CQR (RKL-9; IC50 = 14.3 and 33 µM) strains of P. falciparum. Treatment with compounds resulted in defect in parasite growth and development. No significant hemolysis or cytotoxicity towards human cells was observed suggesting that these molecules are non-toxic. We pursued, structural optimization on JMI-105 and in the process, SAR oriented derivatives (5a-5l) were synthesized and evaluated for growth inhibition potential. JMI-105 significantly decreased parasitemia and prolonged host survival in a murine model with P. berghei ANKA infection. The compounds (JMI-105 and JMI-346) against PfFP-2 have the potential to be used as an anti-malarial agent. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.
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Published in Academic Press Inc.
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