With growing urbanization cities are increasingly suffering due to the abundance of built-in spaces, concrete, mortar and tarmac, urban heat islands, increasing frequency of extreme heat events and climate change. The sustainable development goal 11, emphasizes on developing green infrastructure which could minimize the environmental footprint of the cities. In this paper, we discuss the role of green infrastructure in carbon sequestration, mitigating atmospheric pollution, moderating temperature and mitigating climate change, and management of storm water. We also discuss biodiversity of green infrastructure and the latter as habitat of organisms, and provide an overview of economic value of trees in the urban areas. © 2020 Indian National Science Academy. All rights reserved.