Crop productivity in legumes is determined by number and size/weight of seeds. To understand the genetic basis of seed size/weight in chickpea, we performed genome resequencing of 13 small- and 5 large-seeded genotypes using Illumina platform. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (InDels) differentiating small- and large-seeded genotypes were identified. A total of 17,902 SNPs and 2594 InDels located in promoter and/or coding regions that may contribute to seed size/weight were detected. Of these, 266 SNPs showed significant association with seed size/weight trait. Twenty-three genes including those involved in cell growth/division, encoding transcription factors and located within QTLs associated with seed size/weight harbored SNPs within transcription factor binding motif(s) and/or coding region. The non-synonymous SNPs were found to affect the mutational sensitivity and stability of the encoded proteins. Overall, we provided a high-quality SNP map for large-scale genotyping applications and identified candidate genes that determine seed size/weight in chickpea. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.