We study how ethnic fragmentation in Indian districts influences the distribution of consumption, both overall and between social groups. In the absence of systematic evidence on inequality between social groups (horizontal inequality) during the sample period, we construct estimates of horizontal and overall inequality, and find that horizontal inequality is a small proportion of overall inequality, as well as that both overall and horizontal inequality have increased over time. Our empirical results indicate that more fragmented districts have higher inequality, but the relationship between fragmentation and horizontal inequality is weak. Additionally, we show that fragmentation increases inequality by lowering public good provision. © 2018 UNU-WIDER. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.