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Enhancers as potential targets for engineering salinity stress tolerance in crop plants
M. Jain,
Published in Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Enhancers represent noncoding regulatory regions of the genome located distantly from their target genes. They regulate gene expression programs in a context-specific manner via interacting with promoters of one or more target genes and are generally associated with transcription factor binding sites and epi(genomic)/chromatin features, such as regions of chromatin accessibility and histone modifications. The enhancers are difficult to identify due to the modularity of their associated features. Although enhancers have been studied extensively in human and animals, only a handful of them has been identified in few plant species till date due to nonavailability of plant-specific experimental and computational approaches for their discovery. Being an important regulatory component of the genome, enhancers represent potential targets for engineering agronomic traits, including salinity stress tolerance in plants. Here, we provide a review of the available experimental and computational approaches along with the associated sequence and chromatin/epigenetic features for the discovery of enhancers in plants. In addition, we provide insights into the challenges and future prospects of enhancer research in plant biology with emphasis on potential applications in engineering salinity stress tolerance in crop plants. © 2021 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
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Published in Blackwell Publishing Ltd
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