Header menu link for other important links
Eco-Friendly Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Cardanol Polyphosphazene Polybenzoxazine Networks
Amarnath N., Appavoo D.,
Published in American Chemical Society
Volume: 6
Issue: 1
Pages: 389 - 402
We report on the preparation of hexa-functional cardanol (renewable phenolic compound) benzoxazine with a phosphazene core (CPN) for use as a greener eco-friendly halogen-free flame retardant reactive additive for the formation of sustainable polyphosphazene polybenzoxazine networks for flame resistant applications. The structure and purity of the monomer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-, 13C-, 31P NMR) and gel permeation chromatography studies. The CPN monomer showed good compatibility with benzoxazine monomer (CPN0) as suggested by the cocuring studies. The thermal properties of the copolymer can be directly tuned by altering the composition of the monomer blend. The occurrence of phosphazene-phosphazane thermal rearrangement is also suggested for the thermal behavior (thermogravimetry analysis) at higher loading of CPN in the monomer feed ratio. An improvement in mechanical properties of the copolymer with increase in glass transition temperature was confirmed by enhancement in cross-link density as compared to neat polybenzoxazine. The reactive nature and presence of phosphazene core improved both the smoke density rating, vertical burning rating and led to higher limiting oxygen index. The FTIR and scanning electron microscopy studies of residual char supported the formation of functionalities and morphologies favorable to support the flame resistance behavior of polymer by incorporation of reactive benzoxazine with phosphazene core. Finally, we demonstrate that incorporation of cardanol phosphazene network has good compatibility with the polybenzoxazine phenolic thermosets with improvement in flame retardancy. The higher cardanol (65.7\%) and phosphorus content (3.4\%) and reactive nature of synthesized compound is attractive as a sustainable additive with the scope of their utilization with other polymeric resins. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
About the journal
Published in American Chemical Society
Open Access
Impact factor