Mercury and mercury-related compounds, especially methylmercury species, are highly toxic to humans and animals due to their high affinity toward thiol or selenol residues found in cellular systems. Due to increasing industrialization as well as urbanization all over the world and the absence of proper chemical waste management system along with the lack of awareness about the health hazards, particularly in the developing countries, people are continuously exposed to various toxic heavy metals, including mercury. In fact, extremely high levels of mercury contamination in air, soils, vegetables, and even milk has been reported in the mining areas, particularly coal mining areas, in China, India, and other parts of the world. As a result, high level of mercury was found in blood, hair, and nail samples collected from people in the mining regions and neighboring areas. Thus, the detoxification of mercury and mercury-related products is of critical importance. In this chapter, we have mainly focused on currently available detoxification processes of mercury and mercury-related products by many microorganisms and chemical methods. © 2017 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.