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Cumulative effect of yttrium and tin co-doping on the structural and ferroelectric properties of sol–gel derived barium titanate
Kumar S., Thakur O.P., Luthra V.,
Published in Springer
Volume: 105
Issue: 1
Pages: 304 - 314
The present study discusses the synthesis of yttrium and tin-doped barium titanate using sol–gel synthesis route, and explores their structural, morphological, and ferroelectric properties. Yttrium nitrate and stannic chloride were used to dope barium titanate synthesized using barium acetate and titanium butoxide. The phase of the sol–gel prepared samples with composition Ba1-1.5xYxTi1-zSnzO3; x = 0.0, 0.005, 0.01 for each z = 0.0, and 0.05 was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Raman spectra were obtained to investigate their lattice vibrations. The doping-induced variation in the morphology and grain size of these samples was studied using SEM micrographs, which revealed an increase in grain size with tin-doping and grain growth inhibition caused by yttrium incorporation. The DC conductivity of these samples was measured from RT to 350 °C. The samples were also inspected for their ferroelectric properties. The maximum dielectric constant of 9586 (1 kHz) at its Curie temperature and 5611 at 40 °C was observed for 0.5 mol% yttrium and 5 mol% tin co-doped sample which also displayed the highest density. The P-E hysteresis behavior and piezoelectric coefficient (d33) were also studied. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
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