This chapter explores the utility of cardanol as a potential feedstock for the synthesis of benzoxazine monomers and polymers. Cardanol is a renewable phenolic compound obtained from the plant Anacardium occidentale L. Commercially it is produced as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a byproduct of cashew nut processing. It is currently under exploration as a valuable phenolic reagent in benzoxazine monomers and polymers. Cardanol-based benzoxazines are attractive monomers due to their sustainable aspect, opportunities for solventless synthesis, and processing. To date, Cardanol monomers have primarily been utilized for adhesive and composite applications, but they are ideal candidates for a variety of other applications, which need further exploration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.