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Carbodicarbene Ligand Redox Noninnocence in Highly Oxidized Chromium and Cobalt Complexes
S.-C. Chan, Z.Z. Ang, P. Gupta, , Y. Li, S. Ye, J. England
Published in American Chemical Society
PMID: 32101411
Volume: 59
Issue: 6
Pages: 4118 - 4128
Carbodicarbenes (CDCs) possess two lone pairs of electrons on their central carbone C atom (Ccarbone). Coordination to a transition metal via a σ bond leaves one pair of electrons with appropriate symmetry for πdonation to the metal. However, the high energy of the latter also renders the CDC ligand potentially redox-active. Herein, we explore these alternatives in the redox series [Cr(L)2]n+ and [Co(L)2]n+ (n = 2-5), where L is a tridentate ligand comprised of a central CDC and two flanking pyridine donors. To this end, all members of both redox series were synthesized and their electronic structures were investigated by using a combination of 1H NMR, Evans' NMR, IR, UV-vis, and EPR spectroscopies, SQUID magnetometry, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory studies. Whereas [CoII(L)2]2+ is a straightforward low-spin (S = 1/2) cobalt(II) complex, the corresponding chromium complex was found to feature an electronic structure that is intermediate between the two limiting resonance forms [CrIII(L•-)(L)]2+ and [CrII(L)2]2+. In the case of the tri-, tetra-, and pentacationic complexes, the qualitatively identical electronic structures [MIII(L)2]3+, [MIII(L•+)(L)]4+, and [MIII(L•+)2]5+ were observed for both metals. Thus, the metal ions retain a 3+ oxidation state throughout, and the higher redox states contain oxidized ligands. The majority of the unpaired spin on the cation radical ligands was calculated to be localized in π-symmetry orbitals on the coordinated Ccarbone atoms. Analogous behavior was previously reported for the corresponding iron redox series and, as such, redox noninnocence in oxidized CDC and, more broadly, carbone complexes is likely widely accessible. © 2020 American Chemical Society.
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